Human immunological insights

for vaccine candidate selection


Human immunological insights for vaccine candidate selection

Multi-modal immunoprofiling of skin response to vaccines using VaxSkin®


Dive deep into human immunology with VaxSkin®. VaxSkin® is designed to enable the examination of the early stages of the human immune responses to vaccines and adjuvants in their natural environment at the site of injection.

With precision at its core, VaxSkin® identifies key immune responses and delivers crucial data ahead of clinical trials. Powered by HypoSkin® technology, VaxSkin® combines bio-stabilized, immunocompetent ex vivo human skin with multiomics and computational molecular pathway analysis, providing insights into the early stages of human immune responses to vaccine injection. Advance your research and mitigate developmental risks by accurately selecting the most promising vaccine candidates.

Multi-modal immunoprofiling of skin response to vaccines using VaxSkin

VaxSkin®: Integrated multiomic assays to select the most promising candidate


VaxSkin® is a platform built on four pivotal axes that allow a comprehensive immunoprofiling of the human skin response to vaccines over time at both the organ and single-cell levels.

Assess immunogenicity with multiplex analysis of cytokines


Assess the modulation of cytokines in response to vaccine injection. Uncover biological pathways activated upon vaccine injection based on cytokines secreted.

Evaluate immune response at the tissue level


Discover the biological pathways impacted by the adjuvant and the vaccine based on gene expression at the tissue level.

Understand immune cell types involved in vaccine response


Understand the signaling pathways activated by the vaccine. Uncover which immune cells are incorporating the mRNA vaccine.

Analyze APC activation upon vaccine injection


Investigate APC activation at the protein level with multiplex spatial imaging (MANTIS®).

Assess immunogenicity

Assess immunogenicity with multiplex cytokine release analysis.

Evaluation of the vaccine candidate immunogenicity at the tissue level using multiplex cytokine analysis and bioinformatics.

Vaccine immunogenicity is a measure of a vaccine’s effectiveness in generating an immune response. With VaxSkin®, we employ multiplex cytokine release assays combined with a proprietary bioinformatics approach to differentiate cytokines directly influenced by vaccine injections from those exclusively modulated by adjuvants. Combined with AUDACY (Automated Data Analysis of Cytokines), our bioinformatics-based analytics tool, VaxSkin® reveals the biological pathways activated upon vaccine administration. This tissue-level in-depth analysis offers valuable insights into a vaccine candidate’s ability to induce antigen-presenting cell recruitment and an effective vaccination.

VaxSkin® ensures reliable results by using HypoSkin® models from seven different donors, each with three replicates. This method ensures statistically significant results of cytokine expression, allowing for more accurate characterization of the activated biological pathways implicated in the vaccine response. By comparing your results data from publicly-available, peer-reviewed online databases, AUDACY provides insights into the specific mechanisms that are triggered in the body.

Evaluate the immune response at the tissue level using bulk RNA sequencing

Evaluate the immune response at the tissue level using bulk RNA sequencing

When a vaccine is administered, the entire skin ecosystem adapts to react to the external stimuli.

Using bulk RNA sequencing, subtle alterations in gene expression following vaccine administration can be detected.

This enables the distinction of the precise chain of events occurring between the exogenous substance and the skin’s biological processes.

VaxSkin® utilizes HypoSkin® models from seven donors, which can be the same donors used for immunogenicity assessment. We run three replicates for each donor to ensure accuracy.

After performing standard bulk RNA sequencing, VaxSkin® interrogates publicly available data to identify potential biological pathways associated with the detected differentially expressed genes (DEGs). This offers crucial insights into the processes at play in the skin tissue following vaccination.

Understand which immune cell types are involved in vaccine response using single-cell RNA sequencing

VaxSkin® offers a comprehensive analysis at the single-cell level to identify immune cell types that are involved in response to the vaccine or adjuvant.

Furthermore, VaxSkin® can detect the signaling pathways activated by the vaccine at the single cell level. How is this accomplished?

VaxSkin® uses single-cell RNA sequencing, allowing identification of the unique gene expression patterns in various immune cell subsets. This enables assessment of their activation states, to gain a better understanding of their functional roles in response to vaccines.
Moreover, VaxSkin® has the capability of tracking mRNA vaccine sequences and observing the related changes in transcriptomic profiles.

To deliver comprehensive immunoprofiling, a single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on enriched skin-resident CD45+ cells from dissociated HypoSkin® models was performed, following vaccine administration. Additionally, we have developed an analytical pipeline that systematically tracks and quantifies the presence of vaccine mRNA copies within cells. This enables us to investigate related changes in transcriptomic states at the single-cell level.

Single-cell RNA sequencing on enriched skin-resident CD45+ cells.

Experimental design of single cell RNA sequencing to analyze which immune cell subsets are modulated by the vaccine

Single-cell RNA sequencing exogenous vaccine mRNA detection.

Single-cell RNA sequencing exogenous vaccine mRNA detection

Analyze APC activation upon vaccine injection

Analyze APC activation upon vaccine injection

For effective vaccination, it is crucial that antigen presenting cells (APCs) exhibit a mature phenotype.

VaxSkin® leverages our proprietary spatial biology platform, MANTIS®, to study APC activation post-vaccine delivery.

This spatial biology approach provides an additional dimension to single-cell analysis by shedding light on how immune cells are arranged across all skin layers and how they interact with one another. As a result, MANTIS® enables us to track the relocation of APCs to the dermis following vaccination.
To precisely identify APCs, we have developed a nine-color panel that targets Langerhans cells (LCs), dendritic cells (DCs), and Langerin-positive dendritic cells (Langerin+ DCs). To assess the activation status of APCs, the panel incorporates cell-specific markers, including CCR7, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40, and pan-HLA.

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Frequently asked questions

How was the VaxSkin® platform validated? Can you share some relevant data using the platform?

VaxSkin® has been validated by our Research & Development team over the past three years. To validate the workflow and present valuable data, we performed a comprehensive study using a commercially available vaccine (mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine). The results of this study have been submitted for publication and can be accessed here.

Is VaxSkin® suitable to evaluate the best route of administration for my vaccine candidate?

Yes. VaxSkin® is suitable for the following administration routes: subcutaneous injection, intradermal injection, needle-less injection, micro-array patches (MAPs), and topical application. Thanks to the comprehensive immunoprofiling offered by the VaxSkin® workflow, you will be able to understand the mechanism of action of your vaccine candidate depending on the route of administration. To learn more, please refer to our article comparing the subcutaneous and intradermal routes of injection.

Can VaxSkin® assist in the optimization of my formulation?

Yes. VaxSkin® can be used to optimize your vaccine concentration and formulation. Using HypoSkin® models, we can administer different concentrations and formulations to a single donor and analyze the outcomes.